[PDF] EFFECT OF PASSIVE ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION ON THE REMOVAL OF ROOT CANAL FILLING DURING RETREATMENT PROCEDURES - Free Download PDF (2024)

Download EFFECT OF PASSIVE ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION ON THE REMOVAL OF ROOT CANAL FILLING DURING RETREATMENT PROCEDURES...

Article Scientifique | Scientific Article

Endodontie / Endodontics

EFFECT OF PASSIVE ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION ON THE REMOVAL OF ROOT CANAL FILLING DURING RETREATMENT PROCEDURES Khaldoun AL-Naal* | Mohammad Rekab**

Abstract The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation used as adjunct during endodontic retreatment and its effect on the removal of obturation material from canal walls. Thirty-six extracted human single-rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer using the lateral condensation technique. Teeth were stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for four weeks. The removal of root canal filling was performed using ProTaper™ universal retreatment rotary files without solvent. Teeth were then divided into three groups of 12 specimens each based on the irrigation technique: group 1) syringe irrigation technique with 5.25% NaOCl solution applied as a final irrigation; group 2) passive ultrasonic irrigation technique using # 25 stainless steel files and ultrasonic activation for one minute; group 3) passive ultrasonic irrigation technique applied three times of one minute each. The teeth were longitudinally split in half and photographed. The amount of residual filling material was evaluated according to Hülsmann’s scoring system. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the amount of residual filling material in group 3 was significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 2. PUI enhanced the removal of filling material from root canal walls during endodontic retreatment. Keywords: Retreatment - passive ultrasonic irrigation – gutta-percha.

* DDS, MSc, Ph.D. student, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Damascus University, Syria [emailprotected]

Résumé Le but de cette étude réalisée in vitro était d’évaluer l’efficacité de l’irrigation passive aux ultrasons, utilisée en complément au cours des reprises de traitement endodontique, sur l’élimination de matériaux d’obturation des parois canalaires. Trente-six dents humaines monoradiculées extraites ont été instrumentées et obturées avec de la gutta-percha et un ciment de scellement à base d’oxyde de zinc-eugénol en utilisant la technique de condensation latérale. Les dents ont été conservées à 37°C dans un environnement humide pendant quatre semaines. La désobturation du canal radiculaire a été effectuée à l’aide des limes rotatives ProTaper™ sans solvant. Par la suite, les dents ont été divisées en trois groupes de 12 dents chacun: groupe 1) irrigation finale à la seringue avec du NaOCl à 5,25%; groupe 2) irrigation passive en utilisant des limes en acier inoxydable # 25 et activation aux ultrasons pendant une minute; groupe 3) irrigation passive aux ultrasons pendant une minute répétée trois fois. Les dents ont été sectionnées longitudinalement en deux moitiés et photographiées. La quantité de matériau d’obturation résiduel a été évaluée selon le score de « Hülsmann ». Le test Mann-Whitney U a révélé que la quantité de matériau d’obturation résiduelle dans le groupe 3 était significativement plus réduite que celle obtenue dans les groupes 1 et 2. L’irrigation passive aux ultrasons a amélioré l’élimination du matériau d’obturation des parois lors des reprises de traitement endodontique. Mots-clés: reprise du traitement canalaire – irrigation canalaire - gutta percha.

**DDS, MSc, Ph.D. Vice President for Scientific Affairs, Damascus University, Syria.

67 Endodontie / Endodontics

Introduction Proper sealing of the root canal system is required to maintain the disinfection obtained after cleaning and shaping, in order to facilitate the repair process of the periapical tissues. Correct preparation of the root canal system and a hermetic obturation are prerequisite to prevent recontamination and to ensure the success of the endodontic therapy [1]. Despite the high success rates of the endodontic treatment, the clinician should be prepared to retreat the root canal system if endodontic treatment fails [2]. Unfortunately, conventional root canal retreatment is one of greatest technical difficulties that endodontists face, since filling materials represent a mechanical barrier and their removal can be time- and effort-consuming [3]. Endodontic retreatment requires regaining access to the root canal system by removal of the original filling with endodontic hand files, heat instruments, ultrasonic instruments or engine-driven rotary files followed by cleaning, shaping and re-obturation [4, 5]. Several studies have shown that rotary instruments remove more filling materials during endodontic retreatment than manual instruments [6- 8]. Gutta-percha has been the material of choice for obturation since 1867. Even though it is easily removed, some in vitro studies have demonstrated the persistence of gutta-percha residues on the canal walls, especially in the apical third of the root canal, regardless of the sealer used and the retreatment method. These authors have suggested that the residual material can be minimized if the canal enlargement during retreatment exceeds that achieved prior to the initial root filling [9-11]. The nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments for root filling removal and root canal retreatment have been widely investigated [3, 6, 7, 12-17]. Their use allows the removal of the gutta-percha with no solvents [12], thus preventing the formation of a thin film of gutta-

percha on the walls of the root canal [13]. Such film might reduce the action of intra-canal medicaments and the adhesion of the root canal sealer to the canal walls during the retreatment therapy. Studies have reported that it is essential to remove all root canal filling material from anatomic ramifications and dentinal tubules to ensure cleaner root canal walls [4]. This facilitates the obturation of all of the root canal ramifications and decreases the residual microbial population [4, 18-20]. Irrigation of root canals with antibacterial solutions is an essential part of the chemo-mechanical preparation prior to canals obturation [21]. Irrigation is complementary to instrumentation in facilitating removal of bacteria, debris and necrotic tissue [22], especially from areas of the root canal that have been left unprepared by mechanical instruments [23]. The currently available evidence strongly favors NaOCl as the main endodontic irrigant [24]. The penetration of the irrigant and the flushing action created by irrigation are dependent not only on the anatomy of the root canal system, but also on the delivery system, the depth of placement, the volume of the irrigant and its fluid properties [23, 25-28]. Conventional irrigation with syringe and needle remains widely accepted [29, 30]. Classical endodontic handbooks refer to hand irrigation as a simple procedure [29] and provide general guidelines in order to maximize irrigation efficiency and avoid diffusion of the irrigant into the periapical tissue [31, 32]. The first use of ultrasonics in endodontic practice was described by Richman [33]. Martin et al. [34] demonstrated ultrasonically activated K files’ ability to cut dentin. However, the uncontrolled movement of the file during ultrasonic preparation restrains their use in root canal shaping [35]. Also, it has been shown that ultrasonically driven files are effective in the “irrigation” of root canals [36]. Therefore, their use has

evolved from primary instrumentation to a passive cleaning technique. Passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) was first described by Weller et al. [37]. The “passive activation” refers to the fact that the instrument inserted inside the canal does not touch its walls. During PUI, a small file or smooth wire (e.g., file # 15) placed at the center of the root canal after shaping is ultrasonically activated. An “acoustic streaming” is generated [36], which will create small, intense, circular fluid movement (i.e., eddy flow) around the instruments. The eddying occurs closer to the tip than to the coronal end of the file, with an apically directed flow at the tip [38]. Since the root canal is enlarged, the file or wire can vibrate freely to enable acoustic streaming [36]. This latter increases the cleaning effect of the irrigant inside the canal by means of hydrodynamic cutting power [39]. Various studies have shown that NaOCl used with PUI removes more dentin debris, planktonic bacteria and pulp tissue from the root canal than syringe irrigation [40, 41]. Recently, passive ultrasonic activation has been proved to improve canal debridement [42, 43], disinfection [44, 45] and sealing [46]. PUI also has been recommended for removing Ca(OH)2 from the root canal (47, 48). The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation as effective method during endodontic retreatment in removing the obturation material from canal walls.

Materials and Methods Specimens’ preparation Thirty-six extracted human singlerooted teeth with mature apices were used in this study. Teeth with extremely large canals and open apices detected on the radiographs were excluded from the study. The teeth were cleaned from soft tissue remnants, stored in a 0.1 thymol solution and washed with saline at the moment of use. Teeth were sectioned to provide remaining roots measuring 20 ± 0.05 mm in length.

68

IAJD Vol. 4 – Issue 2

Article scientifique | Scientific Article

Fig. 1: Preparing the longitudinal groove on lingual surface.

Root canals preparation Access cavities were prepared using high-speed diamonds and water spray. Initially, apical patency was established by inserting a K file # 10 to 1 mm beyond the apex; the working length was established when the tip of the file was visible at the apex. The root canals were prepared using K3 rotary files (Kerr, Sybron Endo, California, USA). The instruments were used in a crown-down approach in the following sequence: 25 0.10, 25 0.08, 40 0.06, 35 0.06, 30 0.06 and 25 0.06. During instrumentation, canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl solution using a syringe and a 26-gauge needle (Softec; Hwajin Medical, Chungnam, Korea). Final apical enlargement was done with 30 0.06. Root canals filling technique The canals were dried with paper points and then filled with gutta-percha and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer (Sealite™ Regular; Acteon, Pierre Rolland, France) using lateral condensation. A # 30 master cone was fitted in each canal with a tug-back at the working length. The sealer was placed into the canal by means of the master cone and the root filling was laterally condensed with accessory cones using a # 25 finger spreader. Excess gutta-percha was removed at the canal entrance with heated instruments, before vertical compaction was used to condense gutta-percha at the coronal third of the root. The adequacy of the root canal filling was radiographically confirmed. Access cavities were sealed with Cavit

Hulsmann score: Score I

Hulsmann score: Score II.

Hulsmann score: Score III.

Hulsmann score: Score IV.

Hulsmann score: Score V.

Hulsmann score: Score VI.

(ESPE Dental, Medizin, Germany) and stored at 37° C in a humid environment for 4 weeks to allow complete setting of the sealer.

Retreatment Techniques The obturation was removed from the canals using ProTaper™ Universal Retreatment rotary files

(Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Orbe, Switzerland). These files were used in a crown-down approach in combination with a torque-controlled engine (NSK, Japan) at 500 rpm, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The root canal filling material was gradually removed using light apical pressure until the pre-established working length was reached. The D1 instrument (9% taper, size 30) was first used to cre-

69 Endodontie / Endodontics Amount of residual filling material

Assigned value

I

1

II

2

III

3

IV

4

V

5

VI

6

Table 1: Assigned values for the different scores of the Hülsmann’ system.

Amount of residual filling material

Syringe irrigation

Syringe irrigation + PUI for 1 minute

Syringe irrigation + PUI for 3 minutes

Frequency

Percent

Frequency

Percent

Frequency

Percent

I

2

18.2

1

8.3

8

66.7

II

1

9.1

5

41.7

2

16.7

III

1

9.1

2

16.7

IV

1

9.1

2

16.7

1

8.3

V

2

18.2

1

8.3

1

8.3

VI

4

36.4

1

8.3

Total

11

100

12

100

12

100

Table 2: Amounts of residual filling material obtained in the three groups.

ate a pilot hole into the filling material; the D2 instrument (8% taper, size 25) was used in the middle third of the root canal and the D3 instrument (7% taper, size 20) in its apical part. Apical enlargement was then performed with manual files until K file #35. During all retreatment procedures, flutes of the files were cleaned with piece of gauze after each use. One set of ProTaper™ Universal Retreatment rotary files was used for the retreatment of six root canals. The teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 12 specimens each based on the final irrigation technique: Group 1 (control group) The canal was irrigated with a 5.25% solution of NaOCl using a syringe and a 26-gauge needle (Sofjec, Hwajin Medical, Chungnam, Korea). The solution was left in the canal for a minute. This procedure was repeated three times resulting in a total irrigation time of three minutes. At the end of this

period, canals were thoroughly dried with absorbent paper points. Group 2 The root canal was filled with a 5.25% NaOCl solution using the same syringe and irrigation needle as in the control group but the solution was left in place for a minute. This procedure was repeated three times. In the last minute, PUI was applied through an electrical ultrasonic unit (NSK Varios 560, Nakanishi, Tochigi, Japan). A stainless steel instrument (# 25) (Varios U files) was inserted into the root canal 1 mm short of the working length, and the irrigant was ultrasonically activated for one minute. Group 3 Root canal system was filled with 5.25% NaOCl solution, using the same syringe and irrigation needle used for the control group. PUI was performed for one minute. This procedure was repeated three times, resulting in a total PUI time of three minutes.

Evaluation of root canal cleanliness Following retreatment, the canals were dried with paper points. Longitudinal grooves were prepared with diamond discs on both external buccal and lingual surfaces (Fig. 1), without reaching the root canal space. Then, the roots were split in half with a chisel. Photographs were taken with a digital camera (Power Shot S45, Canon, Japan), and the amount of residual filling material was scored using modified Hülsmann’s scoring system [7, 49] which consists of six categories: I: Obturating material completely removed. II: One to three small (< 2 mm extension) isles of obturating material. III: More than three small (< 2 mm extension) isles of obturating material. IV: Large residues of obturating material (> 2 mm extension). V: Obturating material covering more than 5 mm.

70

IAJD Vol. 4 – Issue 2

Article scientifique | Scientific Article Studied variable

Final Irrigation Technique

N

Mean Rank

Syringe Irrigation

11

23.82

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 1 minute

12

19.67

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 3 minutes

12

Total

35

Amount of residual filling material

Chi square

d.f.

p-value

9.95

2

0.007*

11.00

*: Significant at p-value < 0.01. Table 3: Significant differences in the amounts of residual filling material revealed by the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Group A

Syringe Irrigation

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 1 minute

Group B

U Value

p-value

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 1 minute

44.5

0.178

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 3 minutes

23.5

0.006**

Syringe Irrigation + PUI for 3 minutes

30.5

0.013*

*: Significant at p-value < 0.05; **: Significant at p-value < 0.01. Table 4: Results of the Mann-Whitney U test.

VI: Several isles (> 2 mm extension) of obturating material.

Statistical analysis The Kruskal-Wallis test and the MannWhitney U test were performed to statistically analyze the effect of passive ultrasonic irrigation on the amount of residual filling material. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results were processed and analyzed using a software program (SPSS for Windows, version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA).

Results One of the ProTaper™ Universal Retreatment rotary files was fractured in the canal in the group 1. The amount of residual filling material was observed in all groups. This variable had 6 ordinal categories; each one was assigned a level-corresponding numerical value (Table 1).

The amount of residual filling material obtained for the three groups is shown in the table 2. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences in the amounts of residual filling material between at least 2 of the 3 studied groups of teeth (Table 3). To make a pairwise comparison between the three studied groups, a MannWhitney U test was applied (Table 4). Better results were obtained with the group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2 in terms of elimination of the filling material since the amount of residual filling material detected was significantly lower. On the other hand, no significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2 in the amount of residual filling material.

Discussion The success of endodontic retreatment depends on the complete removal

of the obturation material [4, 40]. To date, it has been proven that complete removal of the filling material is not possible, regardless of the retreatment method or the root canal filling material [11, 13, 40]. Numerous studies showed that the use of rotary devices, heat or solvents in endodontic retreatment should be followed by thorough hand instrumentation to achieve optimal cleanliness of root canal walls [41]. The ProTaper™ Universal system has proven its effectiveness in removing gutta-percha from the root canal [5, 7, 42]. In the present study, rotary instruments D1, D2 and D3 from the ProTaper™ retreatment kit were used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, at 500 rpm and in a crowndown approach. The final instrumentation was performed with manual files until the K file #35 reached the working length. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is the most efficient method of ultrasonic irrigation

71 Endodontie / Endodontics [36]. It follows root canal preparation, irrespective of the preparation method used, up to the size of the master apical file. In this way the ultrasonic file can oscillate freely in the root canal and its cutting action reduced to a minimum. When the file oscillates freely, acoustic streaming and/or cavitation are more powerful [50]. Of all the known irrigants, none is as effective as 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution [51]. Irrigation with NaOCI combined with ultrasound or a wave vibration system has the greatest antibacterial effect. It has been established that passive ultrasonic irrigation in combination with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is more effective than conventional hand irrigation in removing dentine debris from the root canal [22]. The application of this combination improves the exchange of substances in the canal, permits heating of the irrigant and eliminates dentin debris and part of the waste layer, thereby achieving greater cleaning effect [52]. The significantly increased capacity of NaOCl to dissolve organic material when it is agitated by ultrasound [53] or when the temperature rises because of ultrasound energy [54] is well established. In general, the literature recommends between 30 seconds and 3 minutes of NaOCl irrigation, although there is no defined consensus on the exact length of time. Testing the efficacy of a retreatment procedure requires assessing the cleanliness of root canal walls. Wilcox et al. [13] and Imura et al. [55] split the teeth longitudinally. In both studies, the specimens were photographed, magnified and traced. Residual gutta-percha was assessed radiographically [6, 17] or measured using evaluation scales, e.g. severe, moderate, mild or no-retreatment debris [12, 56]. In the present study, the roots were split longitudinally and the residual filling material was measured linearly. When sectioning the roots, the filling debris can be displaced and the technique ends up being unpredictable. Furthermore, images viewed from just

one direction will not indicate the thickness of debris. Delineation of the remaining filling material using softwares is more precise than the utilization of scores [7, 8]. This precision is related to image magnification on the computer, providing better quality of images.

Conclusion Passive ultrasonic irrigation used as a final irrigation technique decreased the amount of residual filling materials during endodontic retreatment procedures. These results might be explained by the effect of acoustic streaming inside the canal, which can agitate the irrigation solution throughout the canal. However, mechanical rotary root canal preparation couldn’t by itself remove the entire root filling material, even though this was accomplished in some of the samples. Further studies, using microscopic evaluation are needed before generalizing the results of this study.

72

IAJD Vol. 4 – Issue 2

Article scientifique | Scientific Article

References

retreatment techniques for a resin-based root canal obturation material. J Endod 2006;32:341-4.

1. Ingle JI. Root canal obturation. J Am Dent Assoc 1965;53:47– 55.

19. Whitworth JM, Boursin EM. Dissolution of root canal sealer cements in volatile solvents. Int Endod J 2000;33:19-24.

2. Barrieshi-Nusair KM. Gutta-percha retreatment: Effectiveness of nickel-titanium rotary instruments versus stainless steel hand files. J Endod 2002;28:454 – 6.

20. Wilcox LR. Endodontic retreatment: Ultrasonics and chloroform as the final step in reinstrumentation. J Endod 1989;15:125-8.

3. Baratto-Filho F, Ferreira EL, Fariniuk LF. Efficiency of the 0.04 taper ProFile during the re-treatment of gutta-percha-filled root canals. Int Endod J 2002;35:651-654. 4. Stabholz A, Friedman S. Endodontic retreatment - case selection and technique. Part 2: Treatment planning for retreatment. J Endod 1988;14:607-614.

21. Haapasalo M, Endal U, Zandi H, Coil JM. Eradication of endodontic infection by instrumentation and irrigation solutions. Endodontic Topics 2005;10:77–102. 22. Lee SJ, Wu MK, Wesselink PR. The effectiveness of syringe irrigation and ultrasonics to remove debris from simulated irregularities within prepared root canal walls. Int Endod J 2004;37:672–8.

5. Schirrmeister JF, Wrbas KT, Schneider FH, Altenburger MJ, Hellig E. Effectiveness of a hand file and three nickel-titanium rotary instruments for removing gutta-percha in curved root canals during retreatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;101:542-547.

23. Gulabivala K, Patel B, Evans G, Ng YL. Effects of mechanical and chemical procedures on root canal surfaces. Endodontic Topics 2005;10:103–22.

6. Carvalho Maciel AC, Scelza MFZ. Efficacy of automated versus hand instrumentation during root canal retreatment: an ex vivo study. Int Endod J 2006;39:779-84.

25. Abou-Rass M, Piccinino MV. The effectiveness of four clinical irrigation methods on the removal of root canal debris. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology 1982;54:323–8.

7. Hülsmamn M, Bluhm V. Efficacy, cleaning ability and safety of different rotary NiTi instruments in root canal retreatment. Int Endod J 2004;37:468-76.

26. Moser JB, Heuer MA. Forces and efficacy in endodontic irrigation systems. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology 1982;3:425–8.

8. Masiero AV, Barletta FB. Effectiveness of different techniques for removing gutta-percha during retreatment. Int Endod J 2005;38:2-7.

27. Chow TW. Mechanical effectiveness of root canal irrigation. J Endod 1983;9:475–9.


9. Friedman S, Moshnov J, Trope M. Efficacy of removing glass ionomer cement, zinc oxide eugenol, and epoxy resin sealers from retreated root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992;73(5):609-612. 10. Friedman S, Moshnov J, Trope M. Residue of gutta-percha and glass ionomer cement sealer following root canal retreatment. Int Endod J 1993;26(3):169–172. 11. Moshonov J, Trope M, Friedman S. Retreatment efficacy 3 months after obturation using glass ionomer cement, zinc oxide-eugenol, and epoxy resin sealers. J Endod 1994;20(2):9092.

24. Zehnder, M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006;32:389–398.

28. Kahn FH, Rosenberg PA, Gliksberg J. An in vitro evaluation of the irrigating characteristics of ultrasonic and subsonic handpieces and irrigating needles and probes. J Endod 1995;21:277–80. 29. Ingle JI, Himel VT, Hawrish CE et al. Endodontic cavity preparation. In: Ingle JI, Bakland LK, eds. Endodontics, 5th edn. Ontario, Canada: BC Decker, 2002; pp. 502. 30. Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: a review. J Endod 2004;30:559–67. 31. Ruddle CJ. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. In: Cohen S, Burns RC, eds. Pathways of the pulp, 8th edn. St. Louis, USA: Mosby, 2002; pp. 258–62.

12. Sae-Lim V, Rajamanickam I, Lim BK, Lee HL. Effectiveness of ProFile .04 taper rotary instruments in endodontic retreatment. J Endod 2000;26:100-104.

32. Wesselink P, Bergenholtz G. Treatment of the necrotic pulp. In: Bergenholtz G, Horsted-Bindslev P, Reit C, eds. Textbook of endodontology, 1st edn. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004; pp. 163–4.

13. Wilcox LR, Krell KV, Madison S, Rittman B. Endodontic retreatment: Evaluation of gutta-percha and sealer removal and canal reinstrumentation. J Endod 1987;13:453-457.

33. Richman MJ. The use of ultrasonics in root canal therapy and root resection. J Dental Med 1957;12:12–18.

14. Tamse A, Unger U, Metzger Z, Rosenberg M. Gutta-percha solvents: A comparative study. J Endod 1986;12:337-339.

34. Martin H, Cunningham WT, Norris JP, Cotton WR. Ultrasonic versus hand filing of dentin: A quantitative study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1980;49:79–81.

15. Kosti E, Lambriandinis T, Economides N, Nofitou C. Ex vivo study of the efficacy of H-files and rotary Ni-Ti instruments to remove gutta-percha and four types of sealer. Int Endod J 2006;39:48-54.

35. Van der Sluis LWM, Wu M-K, Wesselink PR. A comparison between a smooth wire and a K-file in removing artificially placed dentine debris from root canals in resin blocks during ultrasonic irrigation. Int Endod J 2005;38:593–596.

16. Duarte MAH, Reis Só MV, Cimadon VB, Zucatto C, Vier-Pelisse FV, Kuga MC. Effectiveness of rotary or manual techniques for removing a 6 year-old filling material. Braz Dent J 2010;21:148152.

36. Ahmad M, Pitt Ford TJ, Crum LA. Ultrasonic debridement of root canals: acoustic streaming and its possible role. J Endod 1987;13:490–499.

17. Gergi R, Sabbagh C. Effectiveness of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments and a hand file for removing gutta-percha in severely curved root canals during retreatment: an ex vivo study. Int Endod J 2007;40:532-537. 18. Ezzie E, Fleury, A, Solomon E, Spears R, He J. Efficacy of

37. Weller RN, Brady JM, Bernier WE. Efficacy of ultrasonic cleaning. J Endod 1980;6:740–743. 38. Himel VT, McSpadden J, Goodis HE. Instrument, materials and devices. In: Cohen S, Hargreves K, Keiser K, editors. Pathways of the Pulp. 9. St. Louis: Mosby, 2006; pp. 233–289.

73 Endodontie / Endodontics 39. Jensen SA, Walker TL, Hutter JW, Nicoll BK. Comparison of the cleaning efficacy of passive sonic activation and passive ultrasonic activation after hand instrumentation in molar root canals. J Endod 1999;25:735–738. 40. Huque J, Kota K, Yamaga M, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Bacterial eradication from root dentine by ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Int Endod J 1998;31:242–250. 41. Gutarts R, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. In vivo debridement efficacy of ultrasonic irrigation following hand rotary instrumentation in human mandibular molars. J Endod 2005;31:166–170. 42. Plotino G, Pameijer CH, Grande NM, Somma F. Ultrasonics in endodontics: A review of the literature. J Endod 2007;33:81–95. 43. Munley PJ, Goodell GG. Comparison of passive ultrasonic debridement between fluted and nonfluted instruments in root canals. J Endod 2007;33:578–580. 44. Spoleti P, Siragusa M, Spoleti MJ. Bacteriological evaluation of passive ultrasonic activation. J Endod 2003;29:12–14. 45. Carver K, Nusstein J, Reader A, Beck M. In vivo antibacterial efficacy of ultrasound after hand and rotary instrumentation in human mandibular molars. J Endod 2007;33:1038–1043. 46. Van der Sluis LWM, Shemesh H, Wu MK, Wesselink PR. An evaluation of the influence of passive ultrasonic irrigation on the seal of root canal fillings. Int Endod J 2007;40:356–361. 47. Kenee DM, Allemang JD, Johnson JD, Hellstein J, Nichol BK. A quantitative assessment of efficacy of various calcium hydroxide removal techniques. J Endod 2006;32:563–565. 48. Van der Sluis LWM, Wu MK, Wesselink PR. The evaluation of removal of calcium hydroxide paste from an artificial standardized groove in the apical root canal using different irrigation methodologies. Int Endod J 2007;40:52–57. 49. Hülsmann M, Stotz S. Efficacy, cleaning ability and safety of different devices for gutta-percha removal in root canal retreatment. Int Endod J 1997 Jul; 30(4):227-33. 50. Roy RA, Ahmad M, Crum LA. Physical mechanisms governing the hydrodynamic response of an oscillating ultrasonic file. Int Endod J 1994;27:197–207. 51. Lottanti S, Gautschi H, Sener B, Zehnder M. Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic, etidronic and peracetic acid irrigation on human root dentine and the smear layer. Int Endod J 2009;42:335–43. 52. Briseno BM, Wirth R, Hamm G, Standhartinger W. Efficacy of different irrigation methods and concentrations of root canal irrigation solutions on bacteria in the root canal. Endod Dent Traumatol 1992;8:6–11. 53. Moorer WR, Wesselink PR. Factors promoting the tissue dissolving capability of sodium hypochlorite. Int Endod J 1982;15:187–96. 54. Ahmad M. Measurements of temperature generated by ultrasonic file in vitro. Endod Dent Traumatol 1990;6:230–3. 55. Imura N, Kato AS, Hata G-I, Uemura M, Toda T, Weine F. A comparison of the relative efficacies of four hand and rotary instrumentation techniques during endodontic retreatment. Int Endod J 2000;33:361-366. 56. Ferreira JJ, Rhodes JS, Ford TR. The efficacy of gutta-percha removal using ProFiles. Int Endod J 2001;34:267-274.

[PDF] EFFECT OF PASSIVE ULTRASONIC IRRIGATION ON THE REMOVAL OF ROOT CANAL FILLING DURING RETREATMENT PROCEDURES - Free Download PDF (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Eusebia Nader

Last Updated:

Views: 5836

Rating: 5 / 5 (80 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Eusebia Nader

Birthday: 1994-11-11

Address: Apt. 721 977 Ebert Meadows, Jereville, GA 73618-6603

Phone: +2316203969400

Job: International Farming Consultant

Hobby: Reading, Photography, Shooting, Singing, Magic, Kayaking, Mushroom hunting

Introduction: My name is Eusebia Nader, I am a encouraging, brainy, lively, nice, famous, healthy, clever person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.